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Anapanassati Sutta ( MN 118) : Mindfulness of Breathing, Four Focus of Mindfulness, and Seven Factors of Awakening

Posted by Buddha dhamma on November 6, 2010 at 4:38 AM Comments comments (0)

SUMMARY:

Respiration (Breath)  Mindfulness Perfect the Four Focus of Mindfulness

“And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practiced, does respiration-mindfulness perfect the four foundations of mindfulness?"

 


BREATH & BODY


"Bhikkhus, and how is mindfulness related to the  body developed, how is it pursued, so as to be of great fruit & brings great benefit?

The bhikkhu, gone to the forest, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty house, sits legs crossed, the body straight, and mindfulness established in front. Mindfully he breathes in or breathes out. Breathing in long knows, I breathe in long. Breathing out long knows, I breathe out long. Breathing in short knows, I breathe in short. Breathing out short knows, I breathe out short. Trains, calming the bodily determination I breathe in. Trains, calming the bodily determination I breathe out. When he abides diligent to dispel, worldly thoughts and recollections fade and his mind gets established in a single point concentrated. Bhikkhus, in this manner too mindfulness of the body in the body is developed.


Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu having gone into the forest, or to the foot of a tree, or to an empty place,  sits legs crossed, holding the body straight,  securely maintaining mindfulness. Ever mindful, that bhikkhu breathes in; ever mindful, he breathes out."

1. “Breathing in long, he knows, ‘I breathe in long’; or breathing out long, he knows, ‘I breathe out long’.


2. “Breathing in short, he knows, ‘I breathe in short’;  or breathing out short, he knows, ‘I breathe out short’.


3. He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body’( Sabba kaya) ; He trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body ( Sabba kaya)’;


4. “He trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in calming the bodily-formation ( kaya sankhara ) ;’ He trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out calming the bodily formations’
When he abides heedful, ardent, & resolute in this way, any rushing thoughts related to the household life fade, and with their abandoning the mind gathers & settles down, becomes one-pointed, and concentrated. Like this, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu develop mindfulness related to the body.

 

 


And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

 

 



 

PITI & SUKKHA and PERCEPTION & FEELING

5. ‘I shall breathe in experiencing piti (rapture) ’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing piti (rapture) ’;

6. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in experiencing sukha’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing such’;

7. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the mental formation’ ( perception and feeling) ; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the mental formation’ ( perception and feeling) ;

8.trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in calming the mental formation’( perception and feeling) ; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out calming the mental formation ( perception and feeling)’

Note: "perception and feeling are the mental formation  ."(MN 44)

—on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“I say that this, bhikkhus, is a certain feeling (experience) among feelings (experiencings), namely, the giving attention completely to in-breathing and out-breathing. That is why on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.


 

AWARENESS OF MIND, GLADDENING, UNIFYING/ CONCENTRATING, AND LIBERATING THE MIND.
9. ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the mind’;

10. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in gladdening the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out gladdening the mind’;

11. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in concentrating the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out concentrating the mind’;

12. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in liberating the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out liberating the mind’

—on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the mind in the mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“I do not say, bhikkhus, that there is development of respiration-mindfulness in one who is forgetful and does not clearly comprehend. That is why on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the mind in the mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“That is how awareness of breathing, developed and repeatedly practice , is of great fruit, of great benefit."


CONTEMPLATION : Steps 13-16

13. ‘I shall breathe in contemplating impermanence’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating impermanence’;

14. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in contemplating fading away’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating fading away’;

Note: Viraaga also has no satisfactory rendering. Raaga (originally meaning “colour,” “dye”;) is used for “greed” or “lust”; viraaga is the fading away of the colour, the disappearance of greed or lust. It occurs frequently in the suttas in the sequence nibbidaa, viraaga, nirodha, patinissagga, i.e. revulsion (or turning away from the round of rebirths), dispassion (or fading away of greed), cessation, relinquishment.


15. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in contemplating cessation’ ( of craving ); trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating cessation’;

16. trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in contemplating letting go ’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating letting go ’

—on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“Having seen with understanding what is the abandoning of covetousness and grief, he becomes one who looks on with complete equanimity. That is why on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“That is how respiration-mindfulness, developed and repeatedly practiced, perfects the four focus of mindfulness.

Four Focus of Mindfulness Perfect of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment

“And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practiced, do the four focus of mindfulness perfect the seven enlightenment factors?

BODY:   “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body in the body

1. ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world—on that occasion, unremitting mindfulness is established in him.

“On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, unremitting mindfulness is established in a bhikkhu—on that occasion the mindfulness enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“Abiding thus mindful, he investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it).

 

2.  “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, abiding thus mindful, a bhikkhu investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it)—on that occasion the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“In him who investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it), tireless energy is aroused.

 

3.  “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, in a bhikkhu who investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it), tireless energy is aroused—on that occasion the energy enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“In him who has aroused energy, unworldly rapture arises.

   

4.  “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, in a bhikkhu who has aroused energy, unworldly rapture arises—on that occasion the rapture enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“The body and mind of one whose mind is held in rapture, become tranquillized.

   

5.  “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, the body and the mind of a bhikkhu whose mind is held in rapture become tranquillized—on that occasion the tranquillity enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“The mind of one who is tranquillized in body and blissful becomes concentrated.

   

6.  “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, the mind of a bhikkhu who is tranquillized in body and blissful becomes concentrated—on that occasion the concentration enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“He becomes one who looks with complete equanimity on the mind thus concentrated.

  

7.  “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu becomes one who looks with complete equanimity on the mind thus concentrated—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.


 

NOTE: The same goes for feelings, mind, and mental objects .

FEELINGS :  (1)-(7) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings …—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor … comes to perfection in him.

MIND:  (1)-(7) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the mind in the mind …—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor … comes to perfection in him.

MENTAL OBJECTS:  (1)-(7) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mental-objects in mental-objects …—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor … comes to perfection in him.

“Thus developed, bhikkhus, thus repeatedly practised, the four foundations of mindfulness fulfill the seven enlightenment factors.



Seven Factors of Enlightenment Perfect Clear Vision and Liberation

“And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practiced, do the seven enlightenment factors perfect clear vision and deliverance?

      (1) “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu develops the MINDFULNESS enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

      (2) “He develops the INVESTIGATION-OF-STATES enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation (of craving) , resulting in letting go.

      (3) “He develops the ENERGY enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation ( of craving) , resulting in letting go.

      (4) “He develops the RAPTURE  enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation (of craving) , resulting in letting go.

      (5) “He develops the TRANQUILITY enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation (of craving) , resulting in letting go.

      (6) “He develops the CONCENTRATION enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation (of craving) , resulting in letting go.

      (7) “He develops the EQUANIMITY enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in letting go.

“Thus developed, bhikkhus, thus repeatedly practiced, the seven factors of enlightenment perfect clear vision and liberation.”

So said the Blessed One. Glad at heart, the bhikkhus rejoiced at his words.

 


Letting Go of the Attachment to Intention / Will

Posted by Buddha dhamma on June 2, 2010 at 10:41 PM Comments comments (0)

VOLITIONAL FORMATION : ( sankhara, samskara in sanskrit)  refers to actions of body, speech and mind, which are accompanied by intention ( CETANA) .


It is this kamma  which gives rise to future rebirth or ' rebirth according to sahkhara'.  Certain beings arise in different realms according to their actions of body, speech or mind. These actions and reactions ( conditioned response)  can either be meritorious, demeritorious, and in- between.

 

There are three kinds of volitional formations:

1.  bodily volitional formation

2.  verbal volitional formation

3.  mental volitional formation.

 



CETANA : ( intention, will )


"What one intend, what one plans, and whatever one has a tendency towards: [1] There is a support for the establishing of consciousness.  When  consciousness is established, has come to growth, there is inclination. When there is inclination, there is coming and going.  When there is coming and going, there is passing away and being reborn. When there is passing away and being reborn, future birth, aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair comes to be.  Such is the origination of this entire mass of suffering ."

 

 "If one does not intend and does not plan, but one still obsesses about something, this becomes the basis for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is the basis, there is the support, there is the establishing of consciousness. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering."


 "But, bhikkhus, when one does not intend, one does not plan, and one does not have a tendency towards anything no basis exist for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is no basis, there is no support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is unestablished, does not come to growth there is no inclination. When there is no inclination, there is no coming and going.  When there is no coming and going, there is no passing away and being reborn. Future birth, aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." - SN 12.40: Cetana Sutta (3) — Volition



Some might ask ' How do we act,  have a sense of direction, or make progress in the spiritual path ( or in life)  if we let go of intention or will ?'  For example :   ' How do we get into a jhana when we don't seek it ?'


An 11.2 An Act of Will

The causes for the natural development of Awakening factors without will.


Samyutta Nikaya XXVII.7 Cetana Sutta:

"Monks, any desire & passion with regard to intentions involving forms is a defilement of the mind. Any desire & passion with regard to intentions involving sounds...intentions involving aromas...intentions involving flavors...intentions involving tactile sensations...intentions involving ideas is a defilement of the mind. When, with regard to these six bases, the defilements of awareness are abandoned, then the mind is inclined to renunciation. The mind fostered by renunciation feels malleable for the direct knowing of those qualities worth realizing."





 Note : Volitional Formation ( sankhara)  is the second link in Dependent Arising. The next link is Consciousness (Vinnana) .





 

Solitude

Posted by Tiki on June 15, 2009 at 12:50 AM Comments comments (0)

The Buddha on solitude:


" There are, Migajala, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing.  If a bhikkhu seeks delight in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, delight arises.  When there is delight, there is infatuation.  When there is infatuation, there is bondage.  Bound by the fetter of delight, Migajala, a bhikkhu is called one dwelling with a partner......"


"Migajala, even though a bhikkhu who dwells thus resorts to forest and groves, to remote lodgings where there are few sounds and little noise, desolate, hidden from people, appropriate for seclusion, he is still called one dwelling  with a partner.  For what reason? Because craving is his partner, and he has not abandoned it, therefore he is called one dwelling with a partner."

Dealing With Sexual Desire and Other Unwholesome Thoughts

Posted by Tiki on June 1, 2009 at 11:20 PM Comments comments (0)

The top hindrance to samadhi is desire. For example sexual desire. There are a few things we can do to temporarilly off-set these thoughts of desire.


1. Think about something else that is wholesome.  ( ie..the dharma)


2. Consider the drawbacks

With everything, there is a negative side to it. During moments of desire we tend to overlook and only see the positive side. Only after do we realize the negative aspect and regret it.


3. Pay no attention to the unwholesome thought

Sometimes a thought arises and we just perpetuated by staying with it and going along with it. Notice it and ignore it.


4. Relax thinking


5) Using our will power,mental strength and effort to dissolve the thought.

Only after trying the other four gentler methods do we resolve to this method.


MN 20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta : The Relaxation of Thoughts

Let Go of the Pain In the Past So You Can Be With the Peace of the Present

Posted by Tiki on June 1, 2009 at 7:13 PM Comments comments (0)

The first step in meditation is letting go of the past and future  to come back to  this moment. This is hard to do sometime, especially when we hang on to resentment about something or someone in the past.  We will be sitting in peaceful meditation then all of a sudden a memory about the past comes up. It stirs up strong emotion that takes us out of stillness. Instead of being in the present , we are stuck in the past with aversion ( Hindrance 2)  as well.  The past is the first thing that we want to let go of  in meditation, and  aversion is one of the biggest obstacle the prevents the mind from settling into stillness.


You can't change what has happened, but you don't have to relive it over and over. Not forgiving is a form of self punishment instead of  the other person.  It is imprisoning yourself in the past, a past with full of aversion...Listen to all

Purity and Simplicity For Bhikkhu/ Bhikkhuni

Posted by Tiki on April 30, 2009 at 1:25 PM Comments comments (0)

Monastics also observe :


*Chastity ( let go of sensuality, sexuality, lust): Through personal resolve or will power alone, it is possible to be celibate for some years.  During these years it is necessary to enter jhana to develop wisdom that will permanently uproot the defilement of lust. Without jhana and wisdom, the underlying tendency to lust will arise when the condition  is right. The desire to disrobe and get marry may come up .


9.  Abstain from high or luxurious sleeping places  to avoid the temptation to overindulge in sleeping when there is no business to tend to.   When overindulge in sleeping , sloth and torpor could set in instead of building up mental energy. Your practice can become too lax to yield any result.


10. Not accepting gold , silver, money. 


Lessening Desires - Not having money mean that even if a person on the path want to give in to his/her unnecessary desires, it is difficult for them to do so.

 

Allowing the Mind to Settle - Not participating in the rat race mean they are able to enter retreat and allow the mind to settle. Therefore , creating the internal conducive condition for "Right Stillness/ Concentration" to develop.

 


" Gone forth he becomes a trainer in the life of a bhikkhu. He gives up hurting living things, lay aside stick and weapon,  conscientious, merciful, he abides arousing compassion for all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given,  taking only what is given, expecting only what is given,  not stealing he abides in purity. Abstaining from low sexual intercourse, and living apart . Abandoning false speech , he adheres to truth,  becomes reliable and trustworthy and abides without a dispute with the world. Gives up malicious speech. Hearing it here does not say it elsewhere, to divide these. Hearing elsewhere does not say it here to divide those; thus he unites those who are divided, promotes unity. Fond of unity talks words to unite. Abandoning harsh speech, saying gentle words that go straight to the heart of all. Abandoning gossip, he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he speaks words that are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial. Abstains from destroying  seeds and plants.  Partaking one meal a day, abstains from eating at night and outside proper time. Abstains from dance, singing, music, shows, wearing garlands, perfumes, personal adornment.  Abstains from high and large couches . Abstains from accepting gold and silver, uncooked rice and uncooked meat. Abstains from accepting women and girls, slaves, men or women. Abstains from accepting goats and cows, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses and mares. Abstains from accepting fields and wealth, and from going on errands and running messages. Abstains from buying and selling and unfair ways of weighing and measuring. Abstains from accepting bribes, deceiving, defrauding, and trickery. Abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plunder, and violence. Contented with robes to protect the body, and with almsfood to maintain the stomach, taking only these with him wherever he goes. Like the bird that fly with its wings as its only burden. Likewise contented with robes to protect the body and with almsfood to maintain the stomach, and wherever he goes takes only these with him.  Endowed with this mass of virtues, he experiences the pleasure of blamelessness internally." - MN 51: Kandaraka Sutta.

 

 


Dependent Origination

Posted by Tiki on April 24, 2009 at 4:47 PM Comments comments (0)

According to the Buddha, " From delusion as condition, volitional formations [come to be]; from volitional formations as condition, consciousness; from consciousness as condition, name-and -form; from name-and-form as condition, the six sense bases; from the six sense bases as condition, contact; from contact as condition, feeling; from feeling as condition, craving; from craving as condition, clinging; from clinging as condition, existence; from existence as condition, birth; from birth as conditon, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be.  Such is the origin of this whole mas of suffering."


Note: The 5 hindrances ( desire, aversion or ill will, restlessness, doubt, sloth and torpor) cloud the mind , therefore blocking jhana and wisdom / insight. Delusion/ ignorance ( the first link of the 12 factors of dependent origination) remains. Therefore, the overcoming of the 5 hindrances is helpful.. And the two main hindrances are desire and aversion.

 


1.  IGNORANCE (avijja)- Not knowing:  dukkha, the origin of suffering (desire) , cessation of suffering(abandoning desires), the way leading to the cessation of suffering( Noble 8 Fold Path). In short , it is not being able to penetrate/ directly experience the Four Noble Truth.


2. VOLITIONAL FORMATION ( sankhara, samskara in sanskrit, one of the 5 aggregates) - There are three kinds of volitional formations: the bodily volitional formation, the verbal volitional formation, the mental volitional formation. These are actions of body, speech and mind, which are accompanied by will ( cetana) ; and it is this kamma which gives rise to future rebirth or ' rebirth according to sahkhara'.  Certain beings arise in different realms according to their actions of body, speech or mind. These actions and reactions ( conditioned response)  can either be meritorious, demeritorious, and in- between.

 

3.CONSCIOUSNESS ( Pali vinnana, Skt. vijnana, one of the 5 aggregates) ,  - the "knower"


4.NAME AND FORM


Name : feeling, perception( one of the 5 aggregates, Pali sanna), volition (cetana), contact (phassa), attention (manasikara)


Form:  (rupa, one of the 5 aggregates): the 4 elements and the forms derived from them.


 



5.6 SENSE BASES- The eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind. These are called the six sense bases.


6.CONTACT- when sense organs and an object come into contact, awareness of the object arises. The combination of these 3 factors is contact.


7. FEELING   (vedana, one of the 5 aggregates, Pleasant , Unpleasant, Neutral ) - arises as a result of contact


8.CRAVING- arises due to feeling


9. CLINGING- attachment arises due to craving


10.BECOMING ( bhava)- There are 3 kinds of existence:


The sense-sphere (kamaloka): The worlds dominated by the five senses.  They are the human realm, the animal realm, the realm of ghosts, the hell realms and the deva realms up to right below the brahma realm.


The form-sphere ( rupaloka): The silent worlds wherein one exists in the jhana states. They begin with the brahma realm and several other realms of 3 higher jhanas.


The formless-sphere (arupaloka): realms of the immaterial attainments


The Buddha gives the simile of plants growing, with kamma as the field, and consciousness as the seed, which is fed by the moisture of craving to explain how bhava is a cause for rebirth (jati).

 

Thus,for beings who are blinded by ignorance and fettered by craving, there is the establishment of the consciousness in this lower realm, in the hinadhatu (ie. the realms dominated by the five senses), (and so forth for the two higher realms of existence). Thus there is in the future more existence (punabbhava), rebirth (abhinibbatti)".


11. BIRTH-" the arising in the human realm of a being in the womb"


12. SUFFERING- aging and death, sorrow , lamentation, pain, displeasure, despair,

The Ever-Increasing Happiness Of Pure And Simple Living

Posted by Tiki on April 23, 2009 at 11:59 PM Comments comments (0)

The Buddha emphasizes that from harmlessness (virtue) one gets gladness, joy, tranquility, inner happiness, the bliss of jhana, and the freedom that flows from wisdom.  Theses are various forms of happiness occurring in a gradual and natural progression.  The process of renunciation , or ever-increasing happiness, culminates in seeing things as they truly are, which is enlightenment. In the Dhammacetiya Sutta, King Pasenadi remarked how much he enjoyed visiting the Jeta Grove monastery because he would always see happy, smiling monks.  The Buddha acknowledged that this is how it is when one successfully develops one's meditation.  The more one renounces what is only suffering, the more one experiences real happiness. 

 

Transcendental Dependent Arising

In the sequence of conditions for enlightenment , each factor arises dependent on the previous factors:


 


- Faith (saddha)-  From understanding one develops faith in the practice of the Noble 8 Fold Path. 

- Joy(pamojja)  arises automatically in one who is free from remorse.

- Rapture (piti) arises automatically in one who is glad.

- Tranquillity (passaddhi) arises automatically in one who is joyful.

- Inner Happiness (sukha) arises automatically in one who is tranquil.

- Samadhi ( jhana) arises automatically in one who is inwardly happy.

- Wisdom (Seeing things as they truly are) arises automatically in one who has jhana.

- Disenchantment (nibbida)

- Dispassion (viraga)

- Liberation (vimutti)

- Knowledge of destruction of the cankers/taints (asavakkhaye ñana) or knowledge and vision of release.

 




Planes of Existence and the Corresponding Meditative States

Posted by Tiki on April 18, 2009 at 5:06 PM Comments comments (0)

Liberation from the rounds of rebirth require more than just meditative attainments . It is necessary to apply Yoniso Manasikara after emerging from Samma Samadhi ( 1st to 4th Jhana) in order to arrive at a breakthrough by wisdom. 



VARIOUS PLANES OF EXISTENCE


 

Arupa-Loka (Formless Realms)

 

The immaterial or formless sphere (arupa loka) includes four planes into which beings are born as a result of attaining the Four Formless Jhana . The inhabitants of these realms are possessed entirely of mind. Having no physical form or location, they are unable to hear Dhamma teachings. They achieve this by attaining the formless jhana levels in a previous life, and now enjoys the fruits of the good karma of that accomplishment for a period of time before rebirth in a lower plane again. They do not interact with the rest of the universe.   


 

*  Sphere of Neither Perception Nor Non Perception (nevasannanasannayatanupaga deva)-   The beings in this plane only have mind and no physical body. They are unable to hear Dhamma . In this sphere the formless beings do not engage in "perception".


* Sphere of Nothingness (akincannayatanupaga deva) - Rebirth in this plane is a result of attaining the third formless jhana in a previous life.  This is considered a form of perception, though a very subtle one. 

    

* The Sphere of Infinite Consciousness (vinnanancayatanupaga deva) - Rebirth in this plane is a result of attaining the second formless jhana. 

       

* Sphere of Infinite Space (akasanancayatanupaga deva)- Rebirth in this plane is a result of attaining the first formless jhana.

 

 

Rupa-Loka (Fine-Material World )

 

The fine material sphere (rupa-loka) consists of sixteen planes. Beings take rebirth into these planes as a result of attaining the form jhanas. They have bodies made of fine matter. The sixteen planes correspond to the attainment of the four jhanas.   The bodies of Form realm beings do not have sexual distinctions. Like the beings of the Arupa-loka, the dwellers in the Rupa-loka have minds corresponding to the Jhanas.  In their case it is the first four jhanas .

 

Related Sutta : Jhana Sutta

 

 

Pure Abodes(Suddhavasa )

 

The Pure Abodes, are distinct from the other worlds of the Rupa-loka in that they do not house beings who have been born there through ordinary merit or meditative attainments. Birth in these five realms are a result of attaining the fruit of non-returning or, the third level of enlightenment. These Pure Abodes are accessible only to those who have destroyed the lower five fetters consist of self-view, doubt, clinging to rites and ceremonies, sense desires, and ill-will. They will destroy their remaining fetters of craving for fine material existence, craving for immaterial existence,conceit, restlessness and ignorance  during their existence in the Pure Abodes. Those who take rebirth here are called "non-returners" because they do not return from that world, but attain final nibbana there without coming back.They guard and protect Buddhism on earth, and will pass into enlightenment as Arhats when they pass away from the Suddhavasa worlds. According to the Ayacana Sutta of the Samyutta Nikaya, among its inhabitants is Brahma Sahampati who begs the Buddha to teach Dhamma to the world.

 

The five Pure Abodes :

 

Bṛhatphala Planes- These two realms are a result of  attaining the fourth jhana. They  remain in the tranquil state attained in the 4th Jhana, and is characterized by equanimity. One of them is the realm of mindless beings who have only bodies without consciousness.


Śubhakṛtsna Planes- These three realms are a result of attaining the third jhana. The mental state of the devas of these worlds corresponds to the third jhana, and is characterized by a quiet joy (sukha).  These devas have bodies that radiate a steady light.

 

Ābhāsvara Planes- These three are a result of attaining the second jhana. The mental state of the devas of this worlds corresponds to the second jhana, and is characterized by piti as well as sukkha.

 

Brahmā Planes- The mental state of the devas of the Brahmā worlds corresponds to the first jhana.

 

Where Does Inner Chatter Resides ?

Posted by Tiki on April 18, 2009 at 1:05 PM Comments comments (0)


" Awareness is the process of cittas experiencing objects. For a citta to arise it must have an object (aaramma.na). The object may be a color, sound, smell, taste, something tangible, or a MENTAL OBJECT. Strictly speaking a mental object can be an internal phenomenon, such as a feeling, a thought, or an idea.The union of the object, the door or sense faculty, and the consciousness is called "contact" (phassa). There can be no awareness without contact. For contact to occur all three components must be present ? object, door, and consciousness. If one is missing there will be no contact. 
When the mind is not experiencing objects through the five sense doors ? the eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body ? it can still be active through the "mind door," taking as its object either something previously experienced through the five sense doors, recently or long ago, or some idea or image peculiar to itself. Past experiences are registered in the life-continuum (bhava"nga) in a subliminal form, where from time to time they can surface through the mind-door to serve as objects for the citta. Kammically active cittas can follow this mental activity, and here again the practice of mindfulness ? that is, being aware that there is thinking ? will prevent the arising of unwholesome causative cittas. On the other hand, if mindfulness is absent there can be unwholesome mental activity, such as longing for things of the past, worry, remorse, regret, grudge, and doubt."


According to the above extract, the contact between the 3 factors below and perception create what we experience as inner chatter. With the mental object being memories from the subconscious mind. 
 
CONTACT: 

* mind-base  

* mind object( past experiences, memories registered in the subconscious mind,     something previously experienced through the five sense doors, recently or long ago, or some idea or image peculiar to itself) 

* consciousness ( an aspect of citta) 


              +


PERCEPTION  ( pre-conceived notions , association, judgement, etc)

FEELING ( pleasant, unpleasant, neutral)

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= inner chatter ( or any other defilements such as greed, ill will, delusion, etc)


The Arising of Cittas




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